Le splendide voyage

Reflections on exploration & travel


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Warm Mediterranean breezes: From Camargue to Nice

Having lived in Texas, USA and Argentina, I am quite familiar with cowboys galloping across the Texan prairies and “gauchos” riding their horses while working the cattle along the Argentinian pampas (plains).  Still, I was not able to transfer this image to France until I went to visit the Camargue region located in the south of France resting in the midst of the largest river delta in Europe.  There the “gardians” (French cowboys) manage the local cattle herds and the Camargue’s wild horses through the marshes.

Bathed by the Rhône river delta and the Mediterranean Sea, the capital of Camargue, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer (Saint Marys of the Sea) is rich in folklore.  This tradition embodies a perfect concoction of legends, culture and religious rituals blended within historical accounts.  The most common legend conveys the story of the 3 Marys: Mary Magdalene, Mary Salome and Mary Jacobe, believed to be the first witnesses of Jesus’ resurrection and his empty tomb. Anecdotes describe their flight from Jerusalem to Alexandria, Egypt to escape persecution. Later, they set sail from Alexandria with Mary Magdalene’s uncle Joseph of Arimathea arriving on the French coast around this area.  There are at least 3 different versions to this story and a further personage was added, Saint Sarah who welcomed the 3 Marys into this region.  The dark-skinned Sarah, dressed in a multicolored dress and jewels, is venerated by the Roma (Gypsies).  Every May, they come from afar to celebrate their beloved saint in a colorful musical festival.   Throughout the years, the festival has attracted different artists including Bob Dylan who composed the song “One more cup of coffee” while attending the Roma celebrations. Artist such as Vincent Van Gogh was also intrigue by the area and painted the Three White Cottages in Saintes-Maries during his visit in 1888.

Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer atmosphere is low key and perhaps less fashionable than other Mediterranean enclaves. Still, it exudes charm with great possibilities and activities.  There are hiking and biking routes, paragliding, deep sea fishing, sailing and horseback riding. The food products in the area enhance the gastronomic experience:  Camargue’s red rice grown in local rice fields and marshes has become a popular souvenir to take home. Meanwhile, the famous Sel de Camargue (Salt of Camargue) has an exquisite and fresh flavor that makes any raw vegetable taste deliciously savory.  Another interesting place to visit especially by bird lovers is: the Parc Naturel Régional de Camargue.  There thousands of pink rose feathered flamingos can be “watched” especially during spring and autumn.  Also, Camargue’s wild white horses, nomadic throughout the region, are one of the oldest breeds in the world and beloved by locals.  Upon entering Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, the first sculpture standing prominent within its square is the white and wild Camargue horse.  Its story was told in a popular French film called Crin-Blanc, (English title White Mane, 1953).

Moving along the Mediterranean coast, warm breezes takes the traveler to the fashionable and somewhat upscale city of Nice la Belle (Nice the beautiful).  The Greeks first settle in the area around 350 BC.  They named the city Nikaia (hence Nice) after the goddess of victory Nike.  Across the centuries, the city and region belonged to different nobles and crests, until finally it was annexed to France in 1860. Since then, the mild and pleasant Mediterranean climate of the area has also attracted visitors from all corners of the world. The British in particularly, often visit Nice to try to escape harsh winters and rainy seasons. Thus, the best known walkway by the sea is called Promenade des Anglais (The walkway of the British).  Artists and painters such as Marc Chagall and Henry Matisse have loved the area for its natural beauty and till this day their works can be seen at the Musée Marc Chagall and Musée Matisse and of course the prominent Musée des Beaux-Arts in Nice.

The public beaches in Nice are thoroughly populated during high season. These beaches are rocky with pebbles that can scorch unprotected soles during warm weather.  Yet, Nice offers an array of private beaches that are quite lovely.  One of my favorites hotels, Hotel Negresco for example, an amazing architectural structure, cloaked with fine art and overlooking the Promenade des Anglais, provides access to the absolutely bright and picturesque Neptune Plage (Neptune Beach).  Other great private beaches are: Plage Beau Rivage, Opéra Plage, Castel Plage and the Blue Beach (open year round).  These beaches are well-maintained, offering proper walkways to avoid the sizzling pebbles in the summer, great lounge chairs, parasols, lockers and towels for a reasonable cost.  Some of the beaches also offer first-rate dining and watersports activities.

Nice has a vibrant gastronomic scene.  One of my favorite restaurant is Le Chantecler, in the Negresco hotel.   This is truly a fine dining experience within an elegant atmosphere and exquisite presentation.  The sommelier and service staff are excellent making it a superb experience.  Another favorite restaurant is: La Terrasse, a rooftop restaurant on 1 La Promenade des Anglais. The view of the placid Mediterranean sea below enfolded by projecting hills create a subtle perception of elegance and the dishes follow the same refinement. Nice has its share of quaint coffee houses and brasseries.  However, in my opinion the best coffee is found at “Caffe Vergnano 1882.”  Located in a very small street, rue Halevy 11, just behind the Meridien Hotel, they offer high-quality Italian espressos, macchiato, lattes and cappuccinos.  In addition, they have an assortment of pastries including a scrumptious croissant.  During my stay, I visited this café on a daily basis and after sipping their cappuccino, I was always ready to peruse a new section of Nice.

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Roman landmarks, violet blue tufts, spices and other subtle nuances: Provence

After a lingering winter season, the easiest way to improve one’s disposition is to travel toward blue skies and a sun-blessed climate.  From Dijon and then going south on A-31-E17→A6-E15→A7-E15 (passing Lyon), one of the most splendid regions in France emerges in the horizon: Provence, “toujours Provence (Always Provence/Peter Mayle) …”   In Provence everything exudes natural beauty coupled with a native environment rich in regional tastes, bright sceneries and stimulating fragrances. It’s irresistible!

In ancient times, the area was a province of the Roman Empire. As result, the name “Provence” endured virtually intact throughout the centuries. Unsurprisingly, Rome’s historical testament has been permanently interwoven within the region’s landscape.  Hence, Provence should be visited unhurriedly and with a flexible itinerary since there is so much to be absorbed.

I usually try to visit Provence during the spring and summer seasons. My last itinerary started at the city of Orange, a Roman colony founded around 35 BC by soldiers of Caesar’s Second Gallic regiment. In the city center, the Théâtre Antique d’Orange/Ancient Theatre of Orange stands majestically. Built during the 1st century AD, this Roman monument is astonishingly well-preserved and climbing through its semi-circled arena is a notable exercise even as the statue of the Roman emperor observes and guards its realm. A tribute to Roman ingenuity was the removable head of the statue: it changed with each succeeding Roman emperor. During the summer, dramatic performances can be enjoyed as the theater presents an opera festival, the Chorégies d’Orange.  Meanwhile, among trendy local restaurants, the statue of a prominent crusader knight stands alone bearing witness of another time. For history lovers, a rather interesting monument is the Arc de triomphe d’Orange/Triumphal Arch of Orange. Conceivably built during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – AD 14), this monument is fascinating because it chronicles via engravings, prominent military and navel battles scenes including Roman victories over: the Gaul region in France and the Germanic tribes in the Rhineland.  Indeed, a fine historical account!

After, spending a couple of days in Orange, my next stop was the amazing walled city of the popes: Avignon.  Yes, there was a period in history, from 1309 -1378, when the papacy was moved from Rome to Avignon.  Clement V, a French pope was elected in 1305 and decided not to move to Rome. Thus, he moved his papal court to Avignon in 1309. Although Avignon did not belong to France at that time, a total of seven French popes reigned in Avignon (about 67 years) whilst remaining under complete subservience to the ambitious French crown.  Finally in 1376, Gregory XI moved his court to Rome ending the Avignon papacy.  The papal palace is an epic bastion having an imposing presence even from afar. This fortress is the largest Gothic palace from the Middle Ages as it comprises two major segments: the Palais Vieux (Old Palace) and Palais Neuf (New Palace).  Tours can be scheduled with multilingual guides or with an audio-tour device included in the price of admissions.  Another interesting site is the Pont Saint-Bénézet/Pont d’Avignon (the Avignon Bridge), a 12th century structure which was for many seasons the only bridge over the Rhône River south to Lyon.  However, the arches collapsed frequently when the Rhône flooded or when the city came under siege.  Thus, the rebuilding of the bridge stopped around the 17th century and today, only 4 arches remain.  However, the bridge as one of Avignon’s landmarks holds the central theme of a popular song “Sur le Pont d’Avignon”: “Sur le Pont d’Avignon; L’on y danse, l’on y danse; Sur le Pont d’Avignon; L’on y danse tous en rond (On the bridge of Avignon, We all dance there, we all dance there, On the bridge of Avignon, We all dance there in a ring).

In the summer, Avignon becomes the center of artistic expression as it sponsors the Festival d’Avignon/Avignon Festival.  For nearly 3 weeks, theatrical performances command the city while musicians and other gifted performers adorn its streets. The productions commence at the center court of the papal palace and extend to unique performance venues within the city’s walls.  Not far from Avignon (about 35 min), there is an ancient structure that should not be missed: the Pont du Gard (Guard Bridge). Built in the 1st century, this 50 km long (31 miles) Roman Aqueduct Bridge, was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1985. The Pont du Gard was created to carry water from the springs near the village of Uzès to the Roman colony of Nemausus, Nîmes.  The structure was built with aqueduct stones weighing up to 6 tons which were bonded together with iron clamps. Every day until the 4th century (lesser amount up to the 6th century), the Pont du Gard delivered around 44 million gallons of water to the citizens of Nîmes. After, it suffered accumulating mineral deposits due to the lack of maintenance and eventually the flow of water was obstructed.  The bridge has a wonderful museum with all its history plus you can hike, cycle and stroll through the park and its grand surroundings.

Last July, after losing myself in the hindmost roads of Provence, I finally ended up in an unfamiliar town.   As I open my car door, I became mystified by a subtle fruity fragrance arising from the center of town.  Walking towards “the source,” I found a town decorated with melon signs, melon arrangements, melon tastings, melon pastries and melon “everything.” It was the famous melon festival in the Melon capital of France, Cavaillon!  The warm sun and rich terrain of Provence ensures that the melons from this area have an exquisite taste and aroma.  As a matter of fact, a local anecdote recounts this story: “In 1864, a new library at Cavaillon asked a group of French authors to donate some of their works to the library’s collection. Alexander Dumas (The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers, Queen Margot, Twenty years after, etc.),responded by donating 194 of his published works. He also promised to send subsequent works on one condition: Cavaillon should send him 12 of these succulent melons every a year.  The town honored his request and Alexandre Dumas received his beloved ‘melons de Cavaillon’ every summer until his death.”

Going back to the main road, I followed a country road leading to a village nestled in the Alpilles mountains and listed as “one of the most beautiful villages in France,” les Baux-de-Provence.  At first sight, the ruins of a castle parade on the mountain’s ridge. After, curiosity intensifies as the climb to its gates progresses.  Traces of civilization in this area date back to 6000 BC and during the Middle Ages, the lords of Baux pursued the control of this entire region. Later, the troops of Cardinal Richelieu’s besiege the city as rebels sought refuge within its walls. Afterwards, the town and nobility title was presented to Hercule Grimaldi by King Louis XIII in gratitude for services rendered to the French Crown. Hercule’s title of Marquis des Baux has been passed down through the Grimaldi’s dynasty and currently, the title holder is Prince Albert of Monaco.  In addition to its great historical past, the town is charming with its narrow cobblestone streets, coffee shops providing great views of the valley below, attractive shops, historical churches that give the impression of a beautiful unhurried life. During the summer months, you may also enjoy the rhythmic chant of the “cigales (cicadas)” in the afternoon.  This singing insect signifies happiness in Provence and is often represented in local pottery and textiles. Thus, les Baux-de-Provence is always a delightful village to visit whenever I am in the region.

My next stop is usually the city of Arles. The city of Arles has as appealing history as the vibrant colors of its residences, windowpanes and rooftops. The Romans for instance had their eyes on Arles when it was the Greek colony Arelete.  However, it was Julius Caesar that made Arles a prosperous port town and trade route on the Rhône River, rivalled only by Marseilles.  Once the railroad arrived, its efficacy declined and the town suffered a depression.  Yet, this unusual setting welcomed in 1888 Vincent Van Gogh, the Dutch post-impressionist painter. One of his most prolific artistic periods came to pass in Arles where his creativity depicted scenes in and around the city with raw beauty and bold colors.  The visitor’s center in Arles has a walking tour map showing the places where most likely the painter placed his easels to create his masterpieces. Arles has an impressive Roman amphitheater, Les Arènes, which can be seen in the movie Ronin, with Robert De Niro and Jean Reno.  The theater stages different events throughout the year including the férias with bullfights.

On a normal week day, Arles may appear subdued.  Still, on Saturday mornings, Market day (also on Wednesday but smaller), the city creates a vibrant and unforgettable atmosphere.  This market runs for more than 2 km along the Boulevard of Lices while extending through smaller streets in the south border of the old city of Arles. When I walk through this market, I usually vow never to enter a supermarket again.  Farmers and vendors all around the city welcome you with broad smiles, samples and great expertise about their products comprising of: a variety of seasonal fruits, olives and olive oils, cheese & meats, incredible spices, breads, sweets, honey, ceramics, wooden kitchenware & knives, perfumed soaps & oils from Provence’s flowers, clothing and so much more. An amusing fact is that in the market, you will often hear the Occitan dialect language spoken in Provence: the Provençal. Perhaps it is a concoction of Catalan, Italian, Spanish, French and Provence’s inherent flavor.  Though I cannot exactly define it, my ears thoroughly enjoy its intensity and melodious resonances.  In Arles, there is an inscription by Frederic Mistral using the Provençal language.  This well-known Provençal writer-poet devoted his life to defend Provence’s language and culture. Moreover, he wrote the lyrics of Provence’s anthem: Coupo Santo (holy cup). Additionally, the region has a well-developed viticulture with one of my favorite’s wines being the Provençal Rosé paired beautifully with the Banon cheese from Provence.  This age-old cheese recipe goes back to Gallo-Roman times consisting mainly of goat’s milk with a touch of cow’s milk. The cheese matures for two weeks followed by a dip in a local eau-de-vie (marc), then wrapped in boiled and sterilized (water & vinegar) chestnut leafs, and ultimately tied with raffia or straw. This process creates a creamy cheese with a slight chestnut scent. A delicious flavor indeed!

From Arles, I suggest a drive to the Grand Canyon of France: Les Gorges du Verdon.  This river canyon possessing an astonishing turquoise hue is considered one of the most beautiful in Europe as it cuts through the gorge for about 25 km.  The area of the canyon between Castellane and Moustiers Sainte Marie is particularly amazing due to its huge drop and dramatic views of the valley. There are many activities facilitating the exploration of this marvelous ecological wonder including: hiking, kayaking, canoeing, rock-climbing, paragliding, horseback-riding, fishing and fly-fishing.  The visit to the Gorges of Verdon is a breathtaking experience that should be included in the Provence’s itinerary especially during the warmer months.

Lastly, whenever I think of Provence, I imagine sweet-scented fields embraced with violet-blue lavender tufts, speckled with orange poppies accents and even bright yellow sunflowers.  Lavender has been a cherished plant since ancient Egypt.  The Romans brought it to the region and soon fields of lavender covered the area.  Monasteries planted lavender in their medicinal gardens since the plant was used to aid relaxation, headaches, insomnia and a state of well-being. Today, the fragrant plant is use for massages because it provides a calming-effect via oils in aromatherapy.  It can be added to herbal teas in hot or cold infusions.  Their glorious bloom can be seen from June through August cresting in July. Their trail can be followed in the “lavender road “on the Plateau of Claparèdes, with lavender fields and dry-stone wall houses “bories,” perfect for panoramic photographs.  Then, on to the Luberon valley where you can  stop at the Musée de la Lavande (Lavender Museum) in the heart of the Luberon Regional Natural Park where the history of the lavender industry in Provence is conveyed in an appealing manner.

The sheer diversity of sites, terrains and historical destinations make Provence an exquisite region to be uncovered.  In my opinion, the best way to experience Provence is to rent a residence for a few weeks and then spend time exploring different villages and natural wonders.  Day-trips crisscrossing themes and directions can be an original way to encounter the fullness of local culture, language, flavors, backdrops and natural ecosystem.


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The Loire Valley: Spellbound by French History & its illustrious Châteaux

As in any city or country, the desire to discover a new region may surface enthusiastically if one is blessed with a long weekend. One such weekend, (from Dijon: going north and then west), to my surprise: I found the middle segment and valley of the river Loire. Visiting the Loire Valley it is easy to grow enamored with its flawless vineyards, traversing smaller rivers (Cher, L’Indre, and La Vienne), orchards, asparagus and artichoke cultivated farmsteads which garland the river’s banks. Further allure may surface while reading the following statement on a local brochure: “Numerous châteaux were built here for multifarious purposes using distinct architectural designs and sizes.”

Traditionally, the region was a magnet for decisive events that change the course of history at manifold periods in time.  Orléans, a celebrated city in the Loire Valley, became a pivotal location for major historical events. In 1429, the English laid siege and controlled Orléans. Later, on the 8th of May 1492, Joan d’Arc “la pucelle d’Orléans” (the maid of Orléans) followed by the French army liberated the city.  It was said that she even went to mass at the Orléans Cathedral (Basilique Cathédrale Sainte-Croix d’Orléans) while the city was occupied. Another historical personage walked through the streets of Orléans around 1525: John Calvin began his law studies at the University of Orléans, later he would become an influential reformer of the Christian protestant faith.

My journey began by visiting the city of Blois.  Passing the massive cedar trees at place Victor Hugo, I could at last catch my first glimpse of the Royal Château de Blois.  Yet, one cannot grasp the appeal of this remarkable building until reaching the main courtyard. The châteaux has 4 grand wings coordinated with harmony while representing different time periods, kings, and styles. A diagram at the entrance explains the evolution of this amazing structure: the Salle de États Généroux is built in gothic style; the flamboyant gothic Louis XII wing built the 15th century; the François I Italian Renaissance wing built in the 16th century and the Gaston d’Orléans wing built in the 17th century.  The Salle de États Généroux is one of the oldest parts of the château and where the earl of Blois receive its guests around 1214. The equestrian statue of King Louis XII is a prominent marker in the courtyard as well as his royal symbol, the Porcupine: a symbol of invincibility for throwing darts at enemies and its motto, “Cominus et eminus (from near and afar).”  Later in his wing, his wife and Queen Anne, duchess of Brittany, one of the riches woman in Europe at the time, had her own symbol carved and painted: the Ermine, a small animal with silky white fur used by nobility and symbolizing dignity.

King François I was Louis XII cousin who became heir presumptive as the king did not have any male heirs.  He married Louis XII’s daughter Claude heiress to the duchy of Brittany and upon Louis XII death he inherited the throne. King Francis I is a central French historical and royal figure. He initiated the Renaissance movement in France by becoming a generous patron of the arts attracting and bringing to France some of the best artist and architects of Italy, including the great Master Leonardo De Vinci.  In addition, he was also a great patron for the sciences and considered as le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres (the “Father and Restorer of Letters”) for his fervent endorsement of the standardization of the French language.  At the François I wing, his desire for innovation is established. François I assembled one of the finest library for the period (later transferred to Fontainebleau) and the building itself shows the remarkable Italian architectural influence.  During the building and renovation of this wing, his wife Claude was became involved in the decor and refurbishing, including motifs exhibiting François I symbol, the crowned Salamander among the flames with the motto, “Nutrisco et extinguo,”  meaning “I nourish the good and extinguish the bad,”  symbolizing bravery.

Gaston, duke d’Orléans had large aspirations for the building/remodeling of Blois castle and the celebrated architect François Mansart was hired.  Mansart had plans to create a classical structure with four wings around the courtyard.  The construction was never finished, yet one can visit the wing and review Mansart’s plans, the classical columns and staircases.  The entire châteaux de Blois became the stage for dramatic intrigue. Joan d’Arc stopped at Blois castle to receive a blessing from the Archbishop of Reims before going to battle at Orléans; here, King Henry III had his guards attacked and killed his main rival Henry I, duke of Guise, after inviting him for a meeting; Catherine de Medici presumably had within a small parlor her pharmacy of “medicines/poisons” which she dispensed toward her enemies and she also died here.

About 15 km from Blois, are the gaming estates and natural sanctuary of Chambord.  After parking, I strolled peacefully until the panoramic view of this incredible architectural landscape and beautifully kept grounds engrossed my senses.  Indeed, I stood quietly for a moment admiring this enormous structure which from a distance could pass as the skyline of a thriving metropolis. The writer Henry James declared “the towers, cupolas, the gables, the lanterns, the chimneys, look more like the spires of a city than the salient points of a single building.” Chambord is indeed a French and Italian style Renaissance masterpiece and King François I’s crown jewel.  Of noticeable sophisticated maneuver is the double-helix staircase credited to Leonardo de Vinci: someone going up the stairs will never meet another person going down.

As a Renaissance château, the major focus of Chambord was entertainment via hunting of wild games and elaborate festivities.  François I however, spent only a few short hunting trips in this castle before he died.  After François I death, a period of decline ensued.  About 80 years later Gaston d’Orléans directed a much needed facelift and renovation. Afterwards, Louis the XIV, the sun king, decorated the royal chambers.  Sadly, the château was neglected for long periods of time becoming a military lodge at one setting and then during WWII,  art collections belonging to the Louvre museum such as the Mona Lisa were hidden within its massive walls.  Today, this is one of the most visited sites on the Loire Valley.

After spending the night in Blois, I drove to my next destination: Chenonceau, the 15th century Renaissance castle inspired by feminine hands and design. Two of the most famous women dominating the course of its early survival were: Diane de Poitiers, Duchesse of Valentinois, King Henry’s II favorite mistress and Catherine de Medici, his wife and Queen.   Diane adjoined an impressive bridge over the river Cher which runs through the property. Diane also made the grounds of Chenonceau a haven for the cultivation of orchards, vegetables and flower gardens.  Upon Henry II’s death, Catherine maleficently banned Diane Poitiers from her beloved château Chenonceau.  Not to be outdone by her rival, Catherine built a three-story addition over Diane’s bridge and created extraordinary gardens to outshine her husband’s mistress.  Catherine also transformed the château into a center for cultural nobility and festive gatherings. One of the first exhibits of fireworks in France took place at Chenonceau thanks to Catherine.  Upon Catherine’s death in 1589, the chateau went to her daughter-in-law Louise of Lorraine married to Catherine’s son King Henry III.  Not long after, Henry was killed leaving Louise who adored her husband broken-hearted and inconsolable. Historical claims testify that she wondered the halls of Chenonceau dressed in white, the mourning colors of queens, and she became known as the “White Queen.”  Like the other châteaux in the area, Chenonceau suffered from periods of neglect, being a hospital during WWI and a prisoner exchange shelter in WWII.  Today, is well preserved and inside there are always grand bouquets of flowers from its illustrious mistresses’ gardens.

After the beauty of Chenonceau, my journey continued on to a delightful chateau on the Loire Valley: Villandry.  Initially, this was feudal fortress on the banks of the Loire where in the 12th century Henry II of England, upon his defeat, signed the treaty “La Paix de Colombiers” (The Peace of Colombiers) before King Phillip Augustus of France.  Fast forward to the 16th century: Jean Le Breton, the Minister of Finance for King François I acquired the property. Breton who had had extensive architectural and financial experience in building castles, including Chambord, planned a marvelous Renaissance château that remained in his family for two centuries. After, Villandry had different owners including emperor Napoleon who purchase it for his brother Jérôme.  Finally, in 1906, Joachim Carvallo, a Spaniard and his American wife Ann Coleman purchased this property pouring a substantial fortune into the renovation of the chateau and its glorious grounds.  The Carvallo family still owns Villandry and the beautiful building certainly exhibits their personal touch and dedication.  Nonetheless, it is the gardens that deeply fascinate me and make this estate a personal favorite!  It is simply delightful to walk throughout the property sensing assorted aromas while admiring the shrubberies shaped with geometrical precision and revealing accents such as a water garden, decorative mazes planted with arbors, colorful vegetables and flower gardens. Garden lovers as well as conventional visitors will completely appreciate the marvelous formal Renaissance gardens at Villandry.

On my last day I visited the city of Amboise. There, the Royal Château de Amboise proudly parades its façade above the city center.  This was one of François I most popular homes.  I did walk through the castles’ ground but my main focus was another residence: the Château du Clos Lucé.  This elegant manor house became the residence of Leonardo da Vinci for the last three years of his life.  King François I who brought Leonardo to France visited Leonardo often at this manor since he was captivated by his genius.  As a matter of fact, there is a secret passage between the Royal Château de Amboise and the manor. Here, Leonardo worked not only on his art but on his inventions and studies in engineering, physics, mechanics, cartography, botany, philosophy and so much more.  There are models of his inventions displayed in 3D format thanks to IBM: the airplane, helicopter, and automobile among others. The gardens are amazing with the two-level bridge created and designed by Leonardo.  There is so much to see at Château du Clos Lucé that I highly recommend spending time to encounter a glimpse into this man’s brilliant intellect and vision.

The Loire Valley definitely takes a visitor through a stimulating intellectual and farseeing journey. Each day, this region brings to life its illustrious past against the backdrop of history, culture, Renaissance and architectural splendor.